A system that connects two or more computing devices for information sharing and transmission is known as a computer network. This page provides a thorough explanation of computer networks, including kinds, parts, and best practices for 2022.
What is a Computer Network?
An arrangement that connects two or more computers to share and transport data is known as a computer network. Mobile phones and servers are both examples of computing devices. These gadgets can be wireless or connected by physical connections like fiber optic cable.
The internet, a network of networks that connects billions of devices worldwide, is the center of our modern world. Networks are used by businesses of all kinds to link the devices of their employees with shared resources like printers.
Traffic Monoitoring System
The traffic monitoring systems in big centers are an illustration of a broad computer network. These systems provide information on traffic flow and incidents to officials and emergency personnel.
A simpler illustration is sharing documents with coworkers who work remotely using collaboration software like Google Drive.
A computer network is in use whenever we connect via a video call, stream movies, share files, communicate via instant messages, or just access something on the internet.
Computer Network Components
A computer network is composed of two fundamental building blocks: nodes, network devices, and links. The linkages link together two or more nodes. Communication protocols specify how these links transmit the data. The origin and destination devices, which serve as the communication endpoints, are frequently referred to as ports.
- Network Devices
- Communications Protocols
- Defence Network
1. Networking Devices
Computing devices that need to be connected to a network are known as network devices or nodes.
Some Network Gadgets Are:
Computers, smartphones, and other consumer electronics are examples of endpoints that consumers often and directly access.
For instance, an email is created using the mail program on a laptop or smartphone.
The major computing and data storage takes place on servers, which are either application or storage servers. The servers receive all requests for particular operations or data.
Routing is the process of choosing the network path that data packets take to go from A to B. These packets are sent by routers between networks to get to their destination. They boost the effectiveness of big networks.
Repeaters are electronic devices that receive network signals and clean or amplify them. They are to networks what transformers are to electrical grids. Repeaters with several ports are called hubs. They distribute the data to any open ports there may be.
Bridges are more intelligent hubs that only transmit data to the intended port. A bridge with numerous ports is a switch. To enable connectivity with numerous network devices, switches can accept multiple data cables.
Gateways are physical objects that serve as “gates” between two separate networks. They could be servers, routers, or firewalls.
Links are a form of transmission media that come in two varieties:
Coaxial cables, telephone lines, twisted-pair cabling, and optical fibers are a few examples of wired technologies used in networks. To represent data, optical fibers transmit pulses of light.
Radio and other electromagnetic signals can also be used to create network connections. The term “wireless” refers to this method of transmission. Cellular networks, radio, and technology distributed spectrums, as well as communication satellites, are some of the most prevalent instances of wireless links. Spectrum technology is used by wireless LANs to create connections in constrained spaces.
3. Protocols for Communications
All nodes involved in the information transfer must abide by a set of rules known as a communication protocol. The internet protocol suite (TCP/IP), IEEE 802, Ethernet, wireless LAN, and cellular standards are a few examples of popular protocols.
A theoretical paradigm called TCP/IPstandardises communication in a contemporary network. It proposes that these communication linkages have four functional layers:
Network Access Layer
This layer, known as the network access layer, specifies the physical transport of data. It covers the method through which hardware transmits data bits over actual cables or fibers.
The internet layer is in charge of encapsulating data into decipherable packets and enabling data transmission and reception.
Transport layer: By ensuring the connection is reliable and valid, this layer allows devices to continue talking to one another.
Application layer: This layer establishes how advanced apps can connect to a network and begin data transmission.
Metropolitan Area Networks
Metropolitan area networks (MANs) and local area networks (LANs) are covered by the IEEE802 family of standards (MAN). The most well-known component of the IEEE 802 family is wireless LAN, also referred to as WLAN or Wi-Fis.
4. Network Protection
While nodes, connections, and protocols serve as a network’s building blocks, a contemporary network can’t function without protections. When enormous amounts of data are generated, transported, and processed across networks, security is crucial.
Firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), intrusion prevention systems (IPS), network access control (NAC), content filters, proxy servers, anti-DDoS devices, and load balancers are a few examples of network security tools.
Computer networks types
Several factors, including the transmission medium, network size, topology, and organizational goal, can be used to categorize computer networks. The various network types, according to scales of geography, are:
Nanoscale networks: These networks allow microscopic sensors and actuators to communicate.
Personal Area Network
Personal area network (PAN): A PAN is a network that only one person uses to link together various devices, including laptops, scanners, etc.
Local Area Network
Local area network (LAN): A LAN links computers and other devices in a specific physical location, such as a school, hospital, or office building.
Block-level data storage is made possible via a dedicated network called a storage area network (SAN). This is employed in storage apparatuses like tape libraries and disc arrays.
Campus Area Network
Campus area networks (CANs) are a group of LANs that are connected. Larger organizations like governments and colleges make use of them.
MAN stands for metropolitan area network, which is a huge computer network that covers a whole city.